• IP - Complex Resistivity, Resistivity-Phase Induced Polarisation, Time Domain Induced Polarisation

  • CSAMT - Controlled Source Audio-Frequency Magnetotellurics

  • MT - Natural Source Magnetotellurics

  • TEM - Transient Electromagnetics

  • NanoTEM -High Resolution EM

  • DOWNHOLE IP

  • DOWNHOLE EM

IP - Complex Resistivity, Resistivity-Phase Induced Polarisation, Time Domain Induced Polarisation

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
Zonge/GDD Rx + Tx 2D/3D inversion modelling or Res/IP data
2D forward modelling of Res/IP data
  • Mineral exploration for disseminated sulphides
  • Groundwater mapping
  • Petroleum Exploration
  • Geotechnical problems including identification of clay minerals
  • Structural mapping
  • Robust data sets
  • Acquisition possible over rough terrain
  • Simultaneous collection of resistivity/IP data for mapping of chargeable/resistive contrasts
  • Wide variety of array geometrics for various targets
  • Cultural objects may effect data quality
  • Relatively poor resolution with depth

CSAMT - Controlled Source Audio-Frequency Magnetotellurics

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
Zonge Rx/Tx Equipment Forward + inverse modelling of resistivity data
  • Minerals Exploration
  • Petroleum Exploration
  • Leach Heap Monitoring
  • Geothermal Exploration
  • Groundwater Exploration
  • Structural and lithological mapping
  • Rapid, cost effective coverage
  • Large DOI
  • Small environmental footprint
  • Excellent signal strength if to MT
  • Large DOI possible without compromising lateral resolution
  • Remote location of transmitter electrodes may effect viability in small exploration tenements
  • Strong conductive over resistive conditions limit DOI

MT - Natural Source Magnetotellurics

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
Zonge Rx Forward + inverse modelling of scalar/tensor resistivity data
Polar analysis of tensor results
  • Mining Exploration
  • Petroleum Exploration
  • Geothermal Exploration
  • Deep crustal research
  • Structural mapping
  • Very large DOI (>5km)
  • No near-field effects
  • Small environmental footprint
  • No need for transmitter
  • Remote Reference allows for improved data reliability in noisy conditions
  • Can be combined with CSAMT soundings for excellent near surface resolution
  • Cultural EM noise reduces effectiveness

TEM - Transient Electromagnetics

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
Zonge/EMIT Rx, Zonge Tx ID inverse modelling of transient data
  • Mining Exploration
  • Static Corrections for MT/AMT
  • Groundwater mapping
  • Structural and lithological mapping
  • Environmental applications
  • Geothermal Exploration
  • Suitable for conductive target detection
  • Low impact equipment may be highly portable
  • Easy infill to better define anomalous responses
  • Difficulty in heavily vegetated areas

NanoTEM -High Resolution EM

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
Zonge ID inverse modelling of transient data
  • Waste Site Characterization
  • Shallow Groundwater Exploration
  • UXO Detection
  • Engineering Site Investigation
  • Acid Mine Drainage
  • Metal Detection
  • Underground Tank Detection
  • Very fast turn off time for shallow soundings
  • Small, portable form factor
  • Good lateral resolution
  • Small environmental impact
  • Simultaneous measurement of 3-component magnetic field
  • Limited to near surface responses except in resistive conditions

DOWNHOLE IP

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
GDD, Zonge Rx/Tx, winch
  • Confirmation of intersection of IP anomaly in drill targets
  • Cross correlation to help constrain surface IP inversion
  • Lithological and structural mapping
  • Direct measurement of in-situ target resistivity/chargeability for designing of interpreting surface exploration
  • Determination of likely extents of mineralisation to help target drilling
  • Confirmation of surface geophysics
  • Valuable in 'near miss' scenarios and improves cost-benefit ratio of drilling
  • Fast
  • Holes must be cased with slotted PVC or uncased

DOWNHOLE EM

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
EMIT Rx and Atlantis probe, Geonics 3-comp coil probe, winch
  • Detection of nearby conductive targets
  • Simultaneous measurement of 3-component magnetic fields
  • Confirmation of surface geophysics
  • Valuable in 'near miss' scenarios and improves cost-benefit ratio of drilling
  • Possible in PVC cased holes
  • Targeting follow up drilling of conducive targets
  • Holes cannot be cased

IP - Complex Resistivity, Resistivity-Phase Induced Polarisation, Time Domain Induced Polarisation

EquipmentSoftwareApplicationsAdvantagesLimitations
Zonge/GDD Rx + Tx 2D/3D inversion modelling or Res/IP data
2D forward modelling of Res/IP data
  • Mineral exploration for disseminated sulphides
  • Groundwater mapping
  • Petroleum Exploration
  • Geotechnical problems including identification of clay minerals
  • Structural mapping
  • Robust data sets
  • Acquisition possible over rough terrain
  • Simultaneous collection of resistivity/IP data for mapping of chargeable/resistive contrasts
  • Wide variety of array geometrics for various targets
  • Cultural objects may effect data quality
  • Relatively poor resolution with depth